In the long history of the continuous evolution of the earth, there are some "special" periods, such as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, after a large number of plants and animals died, the organic matter that made up their bodies was continuously decomposed and mixed with substances such as sediment or carbonate sediments. form sedimentary layers.
Due to the continuous accumulation and thickening of sediments, the temperature and pressure rise. As this process continues, the sedimentary layers become sedimentary rocks, which in turn form sedimentary basins, which provide the basic geological environment for the generation of oil.
Most geologists believe that oil, like coal and natural gas, was formed gradually by ancient organic matter through long periods of compression and heating. According to this theory, oil was formed by the transformation of prehistoric marine animal and algal carcasses. (Plants on land generally form coal.) Over long geological years, the organic matter mixed with silt and was buried under thick sedimentary rocks.
Under the high temperatures and pressures underground they gradually transform, first forming waxy oil shale and later degenerating into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Because these hydrocarbons are lighter than nearby rocks, they percolate upwards into nearby rock formations until they penetrate the tight, impermeable, and inherently hollow rock formations above. The oil thus gathered together forms the oil field.
Oil can be obtained from oil fields by drilling and pumping. Geologists call the temperature range in which oil forms the "oil window." If the temperature is too low, oil will not form, and if the temperature is too high, natural gas will be formed.
Petroleum refining is a process for refining crude oil into products such as fuel oil and lubricating oil. Also known as petroleum refining method or petroleum processing method. Including primary processing and secondary processing. The former refers to the direct distillation process of crude oil; the latter refers to the reprocessing of straight-run products (such as heavy oil and residual oil).
After desalination and dehydration pretreatment, crude oil is heated to 360-370°C and distilled in an atmospheric tower to obtain atmospheric gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil and heavy oil. The heavy oil is then heated to 380-400°C and distilled in a vacuum tower to obtain vacuum diesel oil and residual oil.
The atmospheric and vacuum distillate oils are heated in a fluidized bed reactor with a catalyst (such as aluminum silicate) at 460 to 530 ° C and a pressure of 1 to 2 kg/cm to obtain high-octane gasoline, diesel oil, etc. .
Using gasoline fraction as raw material, in the presence of catalyst and hydrogen, maintaining a certain pressure (25-30 kg/cm2) and temperature (490-530 ° C), carry out structural reforming reaction, convert non-aromatic hydrocarbons into aromatic hydrocarbons, and then pass Refined, high-octane gasoline and benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. can be obtained (visit our official website https://konecarbide.com/ for the details).
Taking heavy oil as raw material, in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst, maintaining a certain temperature and pressure, complex chemical reactions such as cracking, hydrogenation, and isomerization occur to obtain high-quality light oil or lubricating oil. This method has the advantages of a wide range of raw materials, good product quality, high yield, and full utilization of the large amount of hydrogen produced in the catalytic reforming process.
Since the 1970s, the United States, Japan, Western Europe and other countries have paid great attention to the development of hydrocracking and combined it with catalytic cracking and coking. In addition, the energy-saving measures and automation of oil refining units have also attracted more and more attention. The system composed of computer and cathode ray tube display has been used for detection, monitoring, data processing and control of oil refining production process.
Petroleum is an industrial term, which is relative to mineral resources, commonly referred to as the petroleum industry, which is a mineral resource industry. In the process of oil exploration, the oil reserves are calculated and determined according to the degree of exploration and the proven situation. Oil reserves are the results of geological exploration and are a kind of original mineral resources to be developed.
Crude oil is the oil buried in the rock stratum that has been mined and maintained its original physical and chemical form. It is the primary product of the petroleum industry and has realized its use value. It is the result of oilfield development. Production of mineral resources.
The term petroleum is often used to describe the permeability, porosity and reservoir grade of the reservoir. The term crude oil is mostly used in national statistics of crude oil production statistics, evaluating the physical and chemical properties of crude oil, and describing the recovery factor, recovery degree and oil recovery rate.
The representative Daqing Petroleum is low-sulfur paraffin-based petroleum, and most of the petroleum that has been mined is low-sulfur paraffin-based. This kind of petroleum, with low sulfur content, high wax content and high freezing point, can produce high-quality kerosene, diesel oil, solvent oil, lubricating oil and commercial paraffin, and straight-run gasoline has good lead sensitivity.
Some petroleum has high sulfur content and high colloidal content, and belongs to sulfur-containing paraffin base. The straight-run gasoline fraction has high yield and good lead sensitivity. Diesel fractions have high cetane number, high flash point, high sulfur content and high acidity, and can be refined to produce light diesel and special diesel. In the lubricating oil fraction, some components have a viscosity index above 90, which is a good raw material for the production of internal combustion engine oil.
Some petroleum has low sulfur content and high wax content, and is a low-sulfur naphthene-intermediate group. The gasoline fraction has good lead sensitivity and is also rich in naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons, so it is also a good raw material for catalytic reforming. Diesel fraction has lower freezing point and sulfur content, higher acidity, and the product needs alkali washing. The vacuum residue can be oxidized to produce petroleum construction asphalt.
In addition, some low-point-point petroleum products have low sulfur content and low wax content, and are low-sulfur intermediate bases. It is suitable for the production of some low-condensation products with special properties, and it can also extract naphthenic acid, which is a rare and precious resource.
The color of petroleum is very rich, ranging from deep red, golden yellow, dark green, black, maroon, to transparent; the color of petroleum is determined by the content of colloid and asphaltene contained in it, the higher the content, the darker the color. Colorless oil is produced in California in the United States, Baku in the former Soviet Union, Romania and Sumatra in Indonesia. The formation of colorless petroleum may be related to the adsorption of colored colloids and asphaltenes by rocks during migration. However, the dark oil of different degrees accounts for the absolute majority, and it is almost all over the world's major oil and gas basins.
The main components of petroleum are: oil (which is its main component), colloid (a viscous semi-solid substance), asphaltene (dark brown or black brittle solid substance), and carbonaceous. Petroleum is a colored, flammable oily liquid with a special odor, mainly mixed with hydrocarbons. Strictly speaking, petroleum is mainly composed of hydrocarbons composed of hydrogen and carbon. The chemicals that make up petroleum can be broken down by distillation. Petroleum as a processed product includes kerosene, benzene, gasoline, paraffin, and asphalt. Strictly speaking, petroleum is mainly composed of hydrocarbons composed of hydrogen and carbon. The four hydrocarbons with the smallest molecular weight are all gas.
Logging engineering applies geophysical methods in the wellbore to record the original conditions and changed information in the drilled rock formations and oil and gas reservoirs, especially the distribution of oil, gas and water in the oil reservoirs and their changes, through cables. It is transmitted to the ground, and the technical measures that should be taken are determined based on comprehensive judgment.
Drilling engineering plays a very important role in the development of oil and gas fields. In the construction of an oil and gas field, drilling engineering often accounts for more than 50% of the total investment (know more about PDC Drill bits and Accessories on Konecarbide). The development of an oil and gas field often involves drilling hundreds or even thousands or more wells. There are different technical requirements for wells used for different purposes such as production, observation and control (such as production wells, injection wells, observation wells, and inspection wells specially designed to check the effect of water washing oil, etc.). It should be ensured that the drilled well has the least pollution to the oil and gas formation, the cementing quality is high, and it can withstand the influence of various downhole operations in the mining industry for decades. Improving drilling technology and management and increasing drilling speed are the keys to reducing drilling costs.
Oil production engineering is a process technology that lifts oil and gas from the bottom of the well to the wellhead in the oil well. The rise of oil and gas can rely on the self-injection of the energy of the formation, or it can be lifted by artificially supplemented energy such as oil pump and gas lift. Various effective workover measures can eliminate the frequent failures of oil wells such as wax deposition, water production, and sand production, and ensure the normal production of oil wells. Stimulation measures such as hydraulic fracturing or acidification can increase the productivity that is reduced due to the low permeability of the oil layer, or due to improper drilling technical measures to contaminate and damage the oil and gas layer. For injection wells, it is to improve the injection capacity.
Oil and gas gathering and transportation engineering is a process technology for building complete oil and gas collection, separation, processing, metering, storage, and transportation in oil fields. The oil, gas, water and other mixed fluids produced in the well are separated and preliminarily treated in the mine to obtain as many oil and gas products as possible. Water can be reinjected or used to prevent environmental pollution. Reduce ineffective losses.